|GOI-DfID PROJECT ON |
Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction
The broadest definition of capacity building is the strengthening of the institutional and organisational arrangements of the domain concerned towards delivering services at the required standards.
The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG), Ministry of Personnel, of the Government of India is mandated to continuously undertake administrative reforms that would make the public service delivery systems more citizen friendly and in particular poor friendly. The Department for International Development (UK) (DfID) with this objective is supporting a capacity building programme by DARPG titled Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction (CBPR).
Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.
It is recognised that while poverty reduction is an end objective, it is not possible to directly work on poverty reduction without working on the intermediate variables that affect it. The capacity building for poverty reduction programme seeks to address issues pertaining to the institutional, organisational and individual aspects of service delivery.
It is worthwhile, and necessary, therefore to build the capacity of public administration organisations and systems for impacting the poverty reduction effort of the country. The capabilities profile of various organisations that provide services to the citizens (clients), and the knowledge skills and attitudes of the service-providing civil servant or professional at each organisation is already available with State Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs).
The pro-poor public services delivered by government agencies are more in the nature of an administrative task. Although there is realisation that this has to change in the emerging demanding public and globalisation scenario, the operationalisation of this change is dependent on capacity of the cutting-edge officials. DoPT in consultations with CIG, ATIs and others have captured, into a working model, most of the modalities of training. The model has two dominant parts, one is known and other is unknown. The known fact describes the state of affairs in training with respect to the selected public services in states. The components to be addressed are across the levels and constitute broad elements, such as, profile of the human resources manning the selected sector, objective and scope of training imparted to them as also the scale of training. A clear analysis of these components will lead to greater understanding and requirements for training interventions. The project components constitute the unknown fact that emerges accordingly. The elements of the training components are so chosen that the sector- specific knowledge, skill levels, orientation and motivation of the human resources are explicitly addressed based on their critical importance in the service delivery chain. While incentives are usually used for keeping the motivation levels high, orientation and knowledge levels are managed through appropriate training interventions. The training component of the project would thereby address many state and sector relevant parameters identified in the working model. This will be supplemented with intensive training of government functionaries in selected states/districts/sectors. Through these initiatives, CBPR programme intends to create capabilities across the country through State Training Institutes.
CBPR Project Mechanism in Kerala
Institute of Management in Government (IMG), as a part of strengthening its role as think tank to Government, entered into ToR with Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) for undertaking the Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction Programme (CBPR). The programme is funded by the Department for International Funding (DfID) through DoPT. While poverty reduction is the larger objective, the programme explicitly aims at improving the capacity of selected Department to deliver quality services at its cutting edge level to its beneficiaries.
Aims and Objectives
Constitution of Core Group
- To get conceptual clarity of the socio cultural scenario and demographic characteristics of the targeted beneficiary.
- To develop appropriate mechanisms to identify the gaps of service delivery at cutting edge level.
- To analyse the roles played by line departments in the service delivery and to address the issues with appropriate training interventions and to consider and prioritise the appropriateness of non-training interventions for action.
- To develop training kits, performance aids, guidelines, films, documentaries, etc.
For the smooth conduct of the project, a Core Group was constituted with Dr. R Ram Mohan, Sr. Lecturer, IMG as Nodal Officer. Later Prof. R Prakasam took over the charge. The members of the Core Group are Dr. R Jayasree, Dr. Anishia Jaydev, Dr. KC Baiju, Smt. Mini B Nair, Shri. C Sureshkumar and Shri. S Ashok. Duties and responsibilities were entrusted to different Core Group members by the Core Committee. Individual activities were consolidated after discussing in the Core Committee. Details of activities entrusted with are - conduct of TNA, preparation course Module and Course Design -Smt. Mini B Nair and Dr Anishia Jayadev, Preparation of Course Materials Dr K C Baiju and Dr R Jayasree, coordination of Base line survey -Dr R Praksam , Sri C Suresh Kumar and Sri S Asok, preparation of training aids Dr R Praksam , Sri C Suresh Kumar and Sri S Asok.
The key facts on the pilot project done by IMG under the initiative of CBPR programme are given below.
1. Sector Selected
IMG has selected the Scheduled Tribes Development Department which fells under the development oriented sector for its pilot launch of the project.
Scheduled Tribes Department, Government of Kerala, has been instrumental in bringing about educational, economic and social development in the lives of tribal people of Kerala during the past quarter a century. Though remarkable progress is seen in various phases, the development has been lop-sided, with the ‘haves’ snatching the benefits and opportunities leaving the weaker and primitive communities with practically meager change.
- Focus District : Thiruvananthapuram
- Focus Block : Nedumangad/ Kattakada
- Focus Cadre :
(1) Cutting edge level functionaries for ST and all Stakeholders departments like Education, Health, etc. in tribal settlement areas. (2) ST Promoters
- Approach :
(1) Two day Training Programme (ToT) for cutting edge functionaries
(2) 2 day Training for ST promoters and cutting edge level functionaries
(3) 1 day Beneficiary Sensitization Programme
2. Criterion used for the selection of Pilot District
Thiruvananthapuram District was selected as pilot district. The peculiar feature of Tribal population is that their socio cultural and economic attributes vary widely from district to district. Thiruvananthapuram being the administrative Headquarter of both IMG and ST Development Department and availability of a large number of tribal pockets of heterogeneous groups facilitated the selection. Even though, belonging to Thiruvananthapuram district, accessibility towards even basic facilities is very low ever after various interventions by both Central and State Governments. The second criterion is the geographical proximity.
1. Review of TNA A thorough review of TNA document was done by the core group members with special focus to Service Delivery. A 3 day workshop with department officials as participants was conducted. It reviewed the scheme implementation and penetration. Reports on various developmental schemes, their implementation and utilization were prepared by the officials. This was further vetted by the core group members concerned with TNA. The various training and non training needs arrived at was critically examined in a pro-service delivery angle. Those training needs which have direct linkage with poverty were chosen. The major schemes implemented at cutting edge level which directly benefited the tribal population were analysed in detail. The performance gaps were identified such as
a) Delayed disbursement of financial assistance and educational concessions. From these the enabling objectives and learning events were derived at.
b) Poverty and poor health conditions.
c) Unable to prevent illicit and illegal activities in tribal areas, etc.
A field visit was conducted to have the beneficiary assessment of the various services which they receive from line departments. The field visit revealed gaps in service delivery to study deeper in to the demographic context and implementation of schemes. Hence it was decided to conduct a baseline survey to document the real plight of the target group.
2. Baseline SurveyA baseline survey was conducted in the pilot study area to document the socio economic and cultured characteristics of the target group, their standard of living, extend of poverty and the existing pattern of utilization of schemes and Government aids by the Tribals. The findings were used along TNA findings to develop the Course Module. The Baseline Report will serve as a tool against which further evaluation of the benefits of training can be done.
The schematic depiction of analysis can be seen in Figure-1. From this, it was inferred that the Departments who have a primary role in ameliorating the poverty of tribals are Scheduled Tribe, Local Self Government, Health, Education, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. It was further decided to design training courses for equipping the cutting edge level functionaries of the above departments of Nedumangad Panchayat regarding the various schemes for improving the Service Delivery. The training thus envisaged caters to both organization and personal benefits for the participants.
Based on TNA findings and information from Baseline Survey, Courses were designed with the explicit performance objective and learning units such as
- To improve awareness among tribal population regarding various important health and educational schemes.
- How to implement and monitor schemes
- Creating an awareness about exploitation
Training objectives derived from learning units were - at the end of the training programme the participants will be able to:
- list the various educational and health scheme implemented by the tribal department
- explain the provisions and salient features of the above schemes.
- counsel and communicate to the tribal population regarding the utility of the schemes, and how to access it.
- execute, appraise and monitor projects
- evaluate projects
- plan and develop new initiatives
3. Development of Training Manual
On the basis of enabling objectives and the experience derived from baseline survey, an user friendly training manual was prepared. This consists of instructional materials as well as checklists
5. Training Aids
It was decided to develop 6 short films 2 each in the areas of Education, Health and exploitation for a duration of 5- 10 minutes each. One each of them is of fictional nature oriented toward changing the attitude of the beneficiaries towards their life and the second one in each theme was to sensitise them about schemes which can be availed, in documentary – fictional nature to be used for Training of Trainers of functionaries.
6. Training Plan
It was decided to give ToTs to selected cutting edge level functionaries and ST promoters on the basis of the course designs prepared using the training manual and films.
7. Non-Training Interventions
Any performance gap is usually associated with some non training implications along with training requirements.
We have tried to analyse the non trainings implications and found that want of identity is one major limiting factor for timely access to services. The Core Group thus decided to develop a database with biometric authentication system. The system will identify a tribal in the tribal settlement of Thiruvananthapuram with impression of iris and thump.
As a part of reducing the exploitation, along with the training component we have decided to propose a thrift society with the participants of Government/ Department/ Allied Department.